Tuesday, March 23, 2010

Islam in Xinjiang

Islam in Xinjiang

发布: 2009-9-18 10:27 |  作者: onechinagogogo |   来源: 本站原创 |  查看: 1691次

Taoism was at its height amongst the Hans around the 5th century and was brought along by the Hans who had mostly settled down at places like Turfan and Hami. Taoism was eventually able to spread around the entire Xinjiang in the Ching Dynasty. 

Around 6th century BC,  Manichaeism came to Xinjiang from Persia via Central Asia.  In the mid of the 9th century,  the Uighurs,  whose state religion was still Manichaeism at that time, moved westward to Xinjiang and they had facilitated the promotion and development of Manichaeism.   In Turfan, Uighur Manicheans built temples, dug grottoes, translated scriptures, painted frescoes and spread the Manichean doctrine and culture. 

A Temple of Manichaeism

In AD 705,  Qutaibah ibn Muslim (
屈底波 ) was assigned to be the Governor of Khorasan  (呼罗珊) . After having conquered Balhn (巴里黑) , Bukhara (布哈拉) , Samarkand (撒马尔罕) , Khorezem (花拉子模) such Central Asian regions, by 714, he wrote down the final chapter of his first expedition.   In AD715, he conquered Kashgar  (  喀什 ) and entered deeply into China's hinterland.

After Qutaibah ibn Muslim took over Kokand  (浩罕) in 713 (Islamic calender year 95 ), he continued to march on.

By the end of the year, he invaded Kashgar (喀什)  and accordingly took over Hetian (
和阗), Aksu (阿克苏 ),  Turfan (吐鲁番) and most part of southern Xinjiang was annexed into the map of Caliph Al-Walid I ( 哈里发瓦里德 ) (668 - 715)

Manichaeism (魔尼教) came from Persia in the mid of 8th century and became the national religion of the Uighurs
.   At the same time  Manichaeism was prevailed in Khotan (于阗)  during the Northern Sung Dynasty period (960-1126).  Zoroastrianism and Buddhism both continued to be very well-accepted. 

Later, Buddhism grew and expanded. In Gaochang (
高昌) 、Ganzhou (甘州)、Kucha (龟兹)、Khotan (于阗),  Buddhism grew, expanded and eventually replaced all other religions to become the most dominated religion in these regions.

By the 13th and 14th century, Urumqi, Turfan,  and nearby regions, Muslims had started to live amongst followers of the Nestorianism (景教) .   At the beginning of the 15th century, the price of Kara-Khanid Khanate was converted to Islam and was renamed to Hassan (哈散).   During the 1530's, people in Hami ( 哈密) under the reign of the Mongolian Khan, started to convert to Islam. By the end of the 15th century, the royal members of Turfan had all become Muslims who praised Allah as the greatest.  At the beginning of the 16th century, the rulers in Hami all submitted to Islam.  The conversion of the ruling class resulted with an enormous impact of converting most of the Uighur civilians to Islam. 

By the Ching Dynasty, southern Xinjiang had been fully converted to Islam.  Though there were a lot of Muslims living in Northern Xinjiang, most of them were subjects of the Mongolian Khanate - Junggar (
准噶尔部).    In the 18th century, after Emperor Qianlong ( 乾隆) pacified the Junggar Khanate  (准噶尔部), he set up counties, garrisons, and settled the Huis at the north, thus the influence of Islam was able to develop and secure in the northern part of Xinjiang.   Turning to the beginning of the 20th century, northern Xinjiang was almost entirely filled with Muslim population.  It took almost 800 years long for Islam to be spread and developed in Xinjiang before it was overwhelmingly being accepted by most of the Uighur-Chinese.

By the mid of the 10th century, the Islamic Kara-Khanid Khanate
( 喀喇汗王朝 ) raged a series of religious wars, which lasted for more than forty years, against the Buddhist Kingdom Khotan  (于阗).  Eventually it conquered  Yutian ( 于田 )  and collapsed the entire Buddhist Kingdom.   

Article 36 of China's Constitution states: " Citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom of religious belief.  No state department,  public organization or individual may compel citizens to believe or not to believe in any religion; nor may they discriminate against citizens for their personal belief.  The state protects normal religious activities.  The use of religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the educational system of the state is strictly prohibited.  Religious organizations and religious affairs shall not be subjected to any form of foreign domination."  In addition to the Constitution, the country's Criminal Law, Civil Law, Law on Regional National Autonomy, Military Service Law, Law on Compulsory Education,  Electoral Law of the People's Congress and Organizational Law of Village Committees contain special provisions protecting freedom of religious belief and banning discrimination against citizens who choose to believe or not to believe in any religion.  

     Muslims in China enjoy greater freedom and respects than their brothers and sisters in France where banning, rejection and discrimination against Muslims,  are openly written into the French Laws. French values are legally being imposed upon Muslims in the fancy name of integrity and assimilation.  In China, Muslim women won't be judged by their level of submissive to their male relatives and religion.  Nobody could yank their headscarves before entering a public school.   

File:La Grande Mosque 
Grand Mosque of Lyon
Love Conquers All

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