Sunday, December 4, 2011

what is Politics, Power, Effects of Politics , Types of Politics

Politics is word form old Greek which means "Citizen". also known as affairs of city . in below presentation you can get all information in a arranged form.



This presentation is about
what is politics?
what are the types?
politics in global perceptive
Power?
Types of political parties
theoretical perceptive of Power.
Power and Economy
Power and War
Power beyond the lines








·        
  •       Meanings of politics



   It  is a “Greek” word relating to the “citizen”.
   The dictionary meanings of politics is that
      “The art or science of government or governing, especially the governing of a political entity, such as a nation, and the administration and control of its internal and external affairs.”
·         Definition of politics:
    Politics is the social institutions that distributes power, sets society goals, & makes decisions.


·         Politics & economy:
Politics & economy are closely connected.
Politics creates & oversees the rule of law in the society. The economy effects each family & persons in society.
The growing economy makes for good time personally & politically.

  • ·         Power:


 “the ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others”.
Government:
 “a formal organization that directs the political life of society.”
Authority:
” power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive”.



  • ·         Types of authority:


1. Traditional authority:
traditional authority is the power legitimized by respect for long established cultural patterns,
2. Rational legal authority:
 “power legitimized by legally enacted rules & regulations.”
3. Charismatic authority:
“ power legitimized by extraordinary person’s abilities that inspire devotion & obedience”

  • ·         Types of political parties: 



·         Radical Parties:
    Radical Parties aim at the abolition of all the existing socio-economics and political arrangements as these are sick of all traditional ideas and institutions.
·         Reactionaries
    Reactionaries wish that there was a way to return to the “ good old ways”; where Government did influence every day life & people could settle their problems.
·         Liberal Parties:

   
Liberal parties aim at the betterment and the reformation of the contemporary realities and the existing institutions.
·         Conservative Parties:
    Conservative parties believe in the preservation of all institutions and structure in their original form and resist swift changes. In their membership are included, big landlords , industrialists and those who love old tradition

  • ·         Politics in Global Perspective


According to the Sociology in our Times, “politics is the social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups”. Politics brings about power and authority to those with power. Unfortunately politics often times brings about corruption and abuse of the power or authority gained. There are four major theories of political systems Monarchy, Authoritarianism, Totalitarianism, and Democracy….

·         Monarchy (with Latin and Greek roots meaning “one ruler”) is a political system in which a single
 family rules from generation to generation .A monarchy is a system in which power is passed down to each generation in a family by inheritance and it is commonly found in the ancient agrarian societies
·         Monarchy

  • ·         There are two types of monarchy…

Absolute monarchy  
Constitutional monarchy 


·         Types of Monarchy
Monarchies are associated with political hereditary rule, in which monarchs rule for life and pass the responsibilities and power of the position to their children or family when they die.  Most monarchs, both historically and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a  royal family
  

·         Characteristics, Powers and Roles of Monarchs

and the monarch rules as an autocrat, with absolute power over the state and government—for example, the right to rule, promulgate laws and impose punishments.
Monarchs have various titles including  king or queen, prince
or princess emperor or even
duke or grand duke. Islamic monarchs use titles such as Shah, Caliph, Sultan Emir and Sheikh.


·         The term "democracy" originates from the Greek word demos meaning "people" and kratos meaning "power".A democracy is a government where the people rule either directly or indirectly through representatives. In other words, “A political system that gives power to the people as a whole”.

·         Democracy

·         There are two types of democracy….

Direct democracy
Indirect Democracy

·         Types of Democracy
Some nations prevent their people from having a voice in politics. Authoritarianism is “A political system that denies the people participation in government”. An authoritarianism government is indifferent to people’s needs and offers them no voice in selecting leaders.

·         Authoritarianism

This is a form of government that doesn't consider it's people's opinions and thoughts. They use force often and do not hold elections. There is usually one person or a small group in charge of the government. Examples of Authoritarian Government are North Korea, Burma, Zimbabwe Libya, Myanmar, and Uzbekistan   etc….
Characteristics and Examples of Authoritarian Government

Totalitarianism is a modern autocratic government in which the state involves itself in all facets of society, including the daily life of its citizens. A totalitarian government seeks to control not only all economic and political matters but the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population.

·         Totalitarianism
Democracy……………. “Rule by the people”
  Monarchy………………… “Rule by one person”
 Authoritarianism……………….. “Rule of the few
 Totalitarianism……………… “Rule by the      Government”


By c.wright mills
that a small upper class holds most of societies wealth ,prestige and power. he clamed that the power elite head up the three major sectors of society the economy the government and military. thus the economy made up of the super rich .
Marxist political-economy model
BIAS IN THE SYSTEM IT SELF.
An analysis that explains politics in terms of the operation of a society’s economic system.


where as power elite model focuses on the disproportionate wealth and power of certain individuals. the Marxist political-economy model bias rooted with in this institutions especially it's economy.
Karl max clamed that a society  economic system( capitalists or socialist)shapes its political system.
·         POWER BEYOND THE RULES
In politics there is always disagreement over a society’s goals and the means to achieve them a political system tries to resolve these controversies within a system of rules. But political activity some time breaks the rules or tries to do away with the entire system.
·         Revolution
Political revolution is the overthrow of one political system in order to establish another. While reform involves change within a system, revolution means change of the system itself. Several general patterns characterize revolutions.
·         Rising expectations
Common sense suggests that revolution would be more likely when people are severely deprived. But history shows that most revolutions occur when people’s lives are improving, rising expectations, rather then bitterness and despair, make revolutions more likely.
·         Unresponsive government
Revolutions become more likely when government is unwilling to reform itself, especially when demands for reform by powerful segments of society are ignored.
·         Radical leadership by intellectuals
The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes claimed that intellectuals provide the justification for revolution, and universities are often the center of political change.
·         Establishing a new legitimacy




Over throwing a political system is not easy, but ensuring a revolutions long-term success is harder still. some revolutionary movement are held together mostly by hatred of the past regime and fall apart once new leaders are in stalled.
·         War and peace
·         War
      The most critical political issue is war, organized armed conflict among the people of various nations, directed by their governments. For almost all the 20th century, nations somewhere on earth were in violent conflict.

·         Causes of war

Wars occur so often that will might think that there is something natural about conflict  ,there is no evidence that human being inevitably wage war under any particular circumstances.
Indeed Ashley in 1976 points out governments around the world has to use considerable force in order to mobilize their people for war.
Like all forms of social behavior welfare is product of society the varies in purpose and intensity from place to place.
·         Five factors to promote war

1.      Perceived threats
2.      Social problems
3.      Political objectives
4.      Moral objectives
5.      The absence of alternative
·        
          Peace


To create harmony  develop calmness  silence is known as peace.
·         Four approaches:
 

·         Deterrent
·         High technology defense
·         Diplomacy
·         Resolving underlying conflicts


    
·         Politics in Pakistan and in U.S.

·         In U.S.A

consistency between our democratic ideals and our low turnout at the poles…

The global rethinking of political models…

Danger of war in many parts of the world…

·         In Pakistan:

increasing economic and political instability…

Current situation of Pakistan…

Pakistan in the near future…


·         Conclusion

·         Politics in Pakistan…

Imran Bokhari in his article on August 26th, 2011, said that :
      “Our present and past rulers destroyed us completely as a Nation. We are now objects of ridicule all over the world. We, therefore, must throw these people and their agents out of our country and we must get our honor back. We are a great nation; we will either live with honor or will die. I request all my countrymen, let’s forget all our differences and emerge as a great united Nation, and don’t forget, hard work is the key to success and “Unity”, “Faith” and “Discipline” will take us above all other nations.”

I like this presentation very much. In this presentation information is very concise and full of knowledge. Presenters are also well aware and have full grip on topic. Well confident and prepared  
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